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Because these composers generally replaced the functional tonality of their models with extended tonality, modality, or atonality, the term is often taken to imply parody or distortion of the Baroque or Classical style Whittall A number of composers combined elements of the jazz idiom with classical compositional styles, notably:. Impressionism started in France as a reaction, led by Claude Debussy , against the emotional exuberance and epic themes of German Romanticism exemplified by Wagner.


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In Debussy's view, art was a sensuous experience, rather than an intellectual or ethical one. He urged his countrymen to rediscover the French masters of the 18th century, for whom music was meant to charm, to entertain, and to serve as a "fantasy of the senses" Machlis , 86— At its conception, Futurism was an Italian artistic movement founded in by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti ; it was quickly embraced by the Russian avant garde.

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In , the painter Luigi Russolo published a manifesto, L'arte dei rumori The Art of Noises , calling for the incorporation of noises of every kind into music Russolo Though few of the futurist works of these composers are performed today, the influence of futurism on the later development of 20th-century music was enormous. Characteristic features of later 20th-century music with origins in futurism include the prepared piano , integral serialism , extended vocal techniques, graphic notation, improvisation , and minimalism Dennis and Powell In the early part of the 20th century, Charles Ives integrated American and European traditions as well as vernacular and church styles, while using innovative techniques in his rhythm, harmony, and form Burkholder His technique included the use of polytonality , polyrhythm , tone clusters , aleatoric elements, and quarter tones.

He pioneered the use of new instruments and electronic resources see below. By the late s, though many composers continued to write in a vaguely expressionist manner, it was being supplanted by the more impersonal style of the German Neue Sachlichkeit and neoclassicism.


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  • Postmodernism is a reaction to modernism, but it can also be viewed as a response to a deep-seated shift in societal attitude. According to this latter view, postmodernism began when historic as opposed to personal optimism turned to pessimism, at the latest by Meyer , John Cage is a prominent figure in 20th-century music, claimed with some justice both for modernism and postmodernism because the complex intersections between modernism and postmodernism are not reducible to simple schemata Williams , His influence steadily grew during his lifetime.

    He often uses elements of chance: Imaginary Landscape No. Sonatas and Interludes —48 is composed for a prepared piano : a normal piano whose timbre is dramatically altered by carefully placing various objects inside the piano in contact with the strings.

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    An early example is Terry Riley's In C , an aleatoric work in which short phrases are chosen by the musicians from a set list and played an arbitrary number of times, while the note C is repeated in eighth notes quavers behind them. Steve Reich's works Piano Phase , for two pianos , and Drumming —71, for percussion, female voices and piccolo employ the technique called phasing in which a phrase played by one player maintaining a constant pace is played simultaneously by another but at a slightly quicker pace.

    This causes the players to go "out of phase" with each other and the performance may continue until they come back in phase. La Monte Young's Compositions employs very long tones, exceptionally high volumes and extra-musical techniques such as "draw a straight line and follow it" or "build a fire". Michael Nyman argues that minimalism was a reaction to and made possible by both serialism and indeterminism Nyman , See also experimental music. Arnold Schoenberg is one of the most significant figures in 20th-century music. In , after several years of research, he developed the twelve-tone technique of composition, which he first described privately to his associates in Schoenberg , His first large-scale work entirely composed using this technique was the Wind Quintet , Op.


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    • Later examples include the Variations for Orchestra , Op. In later years, he intermittently returned to a more tonal style Kammersymphonie no. He taught Anton Webern and Alban Berg and these three composers are often referred to as the principal members of the Second Viennese School Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven—and sometimes Schubert—being regarded as the First Viennese School in this context.

      Webern wrote works using a rigorous twelve-tone method and influenced the development of total serialism. Berg, like Schoenberg, employed twelve-tone technique within a late-romantic or post-romantic style Violin Concerto , which quotes a Bach Choral and uses Classical form.

      He wrote two major operas Wozzeck and Lulu. The development of recording technology made all sounds available for potential use as musical material. Electronic music generally refers to a repertory of art music developed in the s in Europe, Japan, and the Americas.

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      The increasing availability of magnetic tape in this decade provided composers with a medium which allowed recording sounds and then manipulating them in various ways. All electronic music depends on transmission via loudspeakers, but there are two broad types: acousmatic music , which exists only in recorded form meant for loudspeaker listening, and live electronic music, in which electronic apparatus are used to generate, transform, or trigger sounds during performance by musicians using voices, traditional instruments, electro-acoustic instruments, or other devices.

      Beginning in , computers became increasingly important in this field Emmerson and Smalley After the s, the term "electronic music" came to be used for both types. Various prominent composers from the 20th century are not associated with any widely recognised compositional movement. The list below includes some of those, along with several notable classifiable composers who are not mentioned in the preceding parts of this article:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Neoclassicism music.

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      This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: List of jazz-influenced classical compositions. Main article: Impressionism in music. Main article: Modernism music. Main article: Futurism music. Main article: Experimental music. Main article: Expressionist music. Main article: Postmodern music. Help Centre. Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join.

      Romantic Music from to All Books Reduced to Clear 1. Chopin's Piano A Journey through Romanticism. In Stock. Berlioz Servitude and Greatness Tchaikovsky The Man Revealed. Introducing Wagner A Graphic Guide. Michael White Kevin Scott.

      Twentieth Century Organ Music

      Anthology for Hearing Rhythm and Meter. Harmony in Mendelssohn and Schumann. David Damschroder. Clara Schumann The Artist and the Woman. Nineteenth-Century Opera and the Scientific Imagination. Mendelssohn A Life in Music. Alexander H. Charles Baudelaire. Musorgsky His Life and Works. Alexander Poznansky Ralph C. Burr Robert J. Mahler A Musical Physiognomy. Theodor W. Adorno Edmund Jephcott. Style and Music Theory, History and Ideology.

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